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Configuration Installation WordPress.org "Editing wp-config.php"

29/12/2010

Codex : Editing wp-config.php

WARNING: Before editing this page.

Please, do not edit this Codex Page with the settings for your own server as you are giving the world access to your website’s MySQL password, and will not make your install work. Thanks.

As part of the WordPress installation, you must modify the wp-config.php file to define the WordPress configuration settings required to access your MySQL database.
This file, wp-config.php, does not exist in a downloaded copy of WordPress; you need to create it. The wp-config-sample.php file is provided as an example to work from. Advanced settings and examples are provided below.
To change the wp-config.php file for your installation, you will need this information :

  • Database Name
  • Database Name used by WordPress
  • Database Username
  • Username used to access Database
  • Database Password
  • Password used by Username to access Database
  • Database Host
  • The hostname of your Database Server

If your hosting provider installed WordPress for you, get the information from them. If you manage your own web server or hosting account, you will have this information as a result of creating the database and user.

Configure Database Settings

Important: never use a word processor like Microsoft Word for editing WordPress files!
Locate the file wp-config-sample.php in the base directory of your WordPress directory and open in a text editor.

NOTE: Since Version 2.6, wp-config.php can be moved to the directory directly above the WordPress application directory.


Default wp-config-sample.php

This is an example of a default wp-config-sample.php. The values here are examples to show you what to do. You need to make changes on your own web site not here. If you make changes here by using the edit button, they will not work and you will be showing your password details to the world.
// ** MySQL settings – You can get this info from your web host ** //
/** The name of the database for WordPress */
define(‘DB_NAME’,putyourdbnamehere’);
/** MySQL database username */
define(‘DB_USER’,usernamehere’);
/** MySQL database password */
define(‘DB_PASSWORD’,yourpasswordhere’);
/** MySQL hostname */
define(‘DB_HOST’, localhost’);

NOTE: Text inside /* */ are comments, for information purposes only.
NOTE: Do not change these details here by editing this page, change them on your web server.


 
Set Database Name
 

Replace putyourdbnamehere, with the name of your database, e.g. MyDatabaseName.

define('DB_NAME', 'MyDatabaseName'); // Example MySQL database name


Set Database User

Replace usernamehere, with the name of your username e.g. MyUserName.

define('DB_USER', 'MyUserName'); // Example MySQL username


Set Database Password

Replace yourpasswordhere, with the your password, e.g. MyPassWord.

define('DB_PASSWORD', 'MyPassWord'); // Example MySQL password


Set Database Host

Replace localhost, with the name of your database host, e.g. MyDatabaseHost.

define('DB_HOST', 'MyDatabaseHost'); // Example MySQL Database host
NOTE: There is a good chance you will NOT have to change it. If you are unsure, try installing with the default value of 'localhost' and see if it works. If the install fails, contact your web hosting provider.


Possible DB_HOST values

Different hosting companies use different network settings for their mysql database’s. If your hosting company is listed below in the left column, the value on the right is similar to the correct value for DB_HOST. Contact your tech support and/or search your hosting companies online Documentation to be sure.

Hosting Company DB_HOST Value Guess
1and1 db12345678
AN Hosting localhost
A Small Orange localhost
BlueHost localhost
DreamHost mysql.example.com
GoDaddy h41mysql52.secureserver.net
HostGator localhost
HostICan localhost
ICDSoft localhost:/tmp/mysql5.sock
LaughingSquid localhost
MediaTemple GridServer internal-db.s44441.gridserver.com
one.com localhost
pair Networks dbnnnx.pair.com
Rackspace Cloud mysql50-01.wc1.dfw1.stabletransit.com
Yahoo mysql
Hosts with cPanel localhost
Hosts with Plesk localhost
Hosts with DirectAdmin localhost
Tophost.it sql.your-domain-name.it


MySQL Alternate Port

If your host uses an alternate port number for your database you’ll need to change the DB_HOST value in the wp-config.php file to reflect the alternate port provided by your host.
For localhost

define('DB_HOST', 'localhost:3307');

Other

define('DB_HOST', 'mysql.example.com:3307');

Replace 3307 with whatever port number you host gives you.

Database character set

As of WordPress Version 2.2, DB_CHARSET was made available to allow designation of the database character set (e.g. tis620 for TIS620 Thai) to be used when defining the MySQL database tables.
The default value of utf8 (Unicode UTF-8) is almost always the best option. UTF-8 supports any language, so you typically want to leave DB_CHARSET at utf8 and use the DB_COLLATE value for your language instead.
This example shows utf8 which is considered the WordPress default value:

define('DB_CHARSET', 'utf8');

WARNING: Those performing new installations

There usuallly should be no reason to change the default value of DB_CHARSET. If your blog needs a different character set, please read Character Sets and Collations MySQL Supports for valid DB_CHARSET values.

WARNING: Those performing upgrades (especially blogs that existed before 2.2)

If DB_CHARSET and DB_COLLATE do not exist in your wp-config.php file, DO NOT add either definition to your wp-config.php file unless you read and understand Converting Database Character Sets. Adding DB_CHARSET and DB_COLLATE to the wp-config.php file, for an existing blog, can cause major problems.

Database collation

As of WordPress Version 2.2, DB_COLLATE was made available to allow designation of the database collation (i.e. the sort order of the character set). In most cases, this value should be left blank (null) so the database collation will be automatically assigned by MySQL based on the database character set specified by DB_CHARSET. Set DB_COLLATE to one of the UTF-8 values defined in UTF-8 character sets for most Western European languages.
The WordPress default DB_COLLATE value:

define('DB_COLLATE', ); 

UTF-8 Unicode General collation

define('DB_COLLATE', 'utf8_general_ci');

UTF-8 Unicode Turkish collation

define('DB_COLLATE', 'utf8_turkish_ci');
WARNING: Those performing new installations

There usually should be no reason to change the default value of DB_COLLATE. Leaving the value blank (null) will insure the collation is automatically assigned by MySQL when the database tables are created.

WARNING: Those performing upgrades (especially blogs that existed before 2.2)

If DB_COLLATE and DB_CHARSET do not exist in your wp-config.php file, DO NOT add either definition to your wp-config.php file unless you read and understand Converting Database Character Sets. And you may be in need of a WordPress upgrade.

Security Keys

In Version 2.6, three (3) security keys, AUTH_KEY, SECURE_AUTH_KEY, and LOGGED_IN_KEY, were added to insure better encryption of information stored in the user’s cookies. (These collectively replaced a single key introduced in Version 2.5.) In Version 2.7 a fourth key, NONCE_KEY, was added to this group. When each key was added, corresponding salts were added: AUTH_SALT, SECURE_AUTH_SALT, LOGGED_IN_SALT, and NONCE_SALT.
You don’t have to remember the keys, just make them long, random and complicated — or better yet, use the the online generator. You can change these at any point in time to invalidate all existing cookies. This does mean that all users will have to login again.

Example (don’t use these!):

define('AUTH_KEY',         't`DK%X:>xy|e-Z(BXb/f(Ur`8#~UzUQG-^_Cs_GHs5U-&Wb?pgn^p8(2@}IcnCa|');
define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'D&ovlU#|CvJ##uNq}bel+^MFtT&.b9{UvR]g%ixsXhGlRJ7q!h}XWdEC[BOKXssj');
define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'MGKi8Br(&{H*~&0s;{k0
define('NONCE_KEY', 'FIsAsXJKL5ZlQo)iD-pt??eUbdc{_Cn<4!d~yqz))&B D?AwK%)+)F2aNwI|siOe');
define('AUTH_SALT', '7T-!^i!0,w)L#JK@pc2{8XE[DenYI^BVf{L:jvF,hf}zBf883td6D;Vcy8,S)-&G');
define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'I6`V|mDZq21-J|ihb u^q0F }F_NUcy`l,=obGtq*p#Ybe4a31R,r=|n#=]@]c #');
define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'w<$4c$Hmd%/*]`Oom>(hdXW|0M=X={we6;Mpvtg+V.o<$|#_}qG(GaVDEsn,~*4i');
define('NONCE_SALT', 'a|#h{c5|P &xWs4IZ20c2&%4!c(/uG}W:mAvy<`}.py(wTP%%');

A secret key makes your site harder to hack and access harder to crack by adding random elements to the password.
In simple terms, a secret key is a password with elements that make it harder to generate enough options to break through your security barriers. A password like “password” or “test” is simple and easily broken. A random, unpredictable password such as “88a7da62429ba6ad3cb3c76a09641fc” takes years to come up with the right combination. A ‘salt is used to further enhance the security of the generated result.
The four keys are required for the enhanced security. The four salts are recommended, but are not required, because WordPress will generate salts for you if none are provided. They are included in wp-config.php by default for inclusiveness.
For more information on the technical background and breakdown of secret keys and secure passwords, see:

Article Of WordPress.org

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